Bamboo is one of the fastest-growing plants on Earth; it has been measured surging skyward as fast as 121 cm (48 in) in a 24-hour period, and can also reach maximal growth rate exceeding one metre (39 inches) per hour for short periods of time. Many prehistoric bamboos exceeded heights of 85 metres (279 ft). Primarily growing in regions of warmer climates during the Cretaceous period, vast fields existed in what is now Asia.
Unlike trees, all bamboo have the potential to grow to full height and girth in a single growing season of 3–4 months. During this first season, the clump of young shoots grow vertically, with no branching. In the next year, the pulpy wall of each culm or stem slowly dries and hardens. The culm begins to sprout branches and leaves from each node. During the third year, the culm further hardens. The shoot is now considered a fully mature culm. Over the next 2–5 years (depending on species), fungus and mould begin to form on the outside of the culm, which eventually penetrate and overcome the culm. Around 5 – 8 years later (species and climate dependent), the fungal and mold growth cause the culm to collapse and decay. This brief life means culms are ready for harvest and suitable for use in construction within 3 – 7 years.
Epiphytic Orchids are grown perched high in the trees clinging to branches or in the trunk apex of the tree. They derive their nutrients from the air, rain, and any decaying vegetation, which the roots can contact. Epiphytic Orchids have specialised aerial roots, which have a white spongy layer of cells called velamen. This protects the inner root tissues and absorbs water. These roots will also often dangle free in the atmosphere. �Lithophytic Orchids are seen covering the bases and forks of trees or filling crevices in rocks, and absorb a maximum supply of nutrients from decaying mosses. �Terrestrial Orchids are seen under the ground, having a symbiotic relation with a special fungus, which in turn supports the orchid with the essential nutrients.